The last Tudor monarch, Queen Elizabeth I, was the daughter
of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Her early life went from Princess to being
declared illegitimate after her mother was executed. At one point, her sister
Mary had her placed in The Tower on charges of treason. Elizabeth was never
expected to rule England, but she did. Many would say her reign is unmatched in
the history of England. She became Gloriana…Good Queen Bess…The Virgin Queen.
The years of 1558–1603 saw English art and high culture reach a zenith known as the English Renaissance. Elizabethan music experienced a shift in popularity from sacred to secular music and saw an increase in instrumental music. Professional musicians were employed by the Church of England, the nobility, and the rising middle-class. Elizabeth I loved music and was an accomplished musician, noted as played the lute, virginal, and gitterne-an early form of the guitar, along with various other instruments. She believed dancing was a great form of physical exercise and employed musicians to play for her. During her reign, it became a common practice to employee musicians. The interests of the queen were expected to be adopted by her subjects. All noblemen were expected to be proficient in playing the lute and young women in society were expected to be skilled in vocal or musical training as part of their education. Music printing led to a publishing market for those who received permission from the queen.
Even though England broke with the Roman Catholic Church in
1534, English did not become the official language of the Church of England
until the reign of Elizabeth’s stepbrother Edward VI. Queen Elizabeth
re-established the Church of England following the rule of Mary I, and
introduced measures of Catholic tolerance. The most famous composers for the
Anglican Church during Queen Elizabeth’s reign were Thomas Tallis and his
student William Byrd. Both composers were Catholics and produced vocal works in
both Latin and English.
Secular vocal works became wildly popular during the Elizabethan Era with the introduction of works from Italian musicians.The music of Italian madrigal composers inspired musicians who are now known as the English Madrigal School. Thomas Morley, a student of William Byrd’s, published collections of madrigals which included his compositions, and those of his contemporaries. The most famous of these is entitled The Triumphs of Oriana, which was made in honour of Queen Elizabeth.
Instrumental music was popular during the Elizabethan Era. The most popular solo instruments of the time were the virginal and the lute. The virginal was a variant of the harpsichord, and one of Elizabeth’s personal favorites. The lute was the most popular instrument of the era. Lutes could be played as solo instruments or as accompaniment for singers. Compositions of the latter variety were known as lute song. The most popular Elizabethan composer for the lute was John Dowland. Contemporary readers will recognize this name as Elvis Costello included a recording of Dowland’s song “Can she excuse my wrongs” as a bonus track on the 2006 re-release of his The Juliet Letters.
In October 2006, Sting, released an album featuring
Dowland’s songs titled Songs from the Labyrinth, in collaboration with Edin
Karamazov on lute and archlute. He states that he has been fascinated by the
music of John Dowland for over twenty five years. In order to give a feeling of
the tension and intrigues of life in late Elizabethan England, Sting recites
portions of a letter written by Dowland to Sir Robert Cecil in 1593.
Henry VIII’s grandmother and his father (Lady Margaret
Beaufort and King Henry VII) were devout Catholics, yet they were highly
superstitious. Both kept a retinue of soothsayers and diviners in their
employment, along with their physicians. They aimed to be of one accord with
the planets and signs from the heavens. Elizabeth I even chose the exact moment
of her coronation based on an astrology chart drawn by her physician John Dee.
The Tudors believed that “as above, so below”. If the royal humors were
balanced within the body, their body would be in tune with the heavenly realm.
We see how the love of music shaped the lives of three extremely influential
queens during the Tudor era. We may no longer believe that music is needed to
balance our ‘humours’ however the importance of music and dance, in all its
various forms, continues to shape contemporary society.
Originally published April 2016 by History.Net
Sources for Medicine, Magic and Music: The Healing Properties of Music Observed in the Lives of Anne Boleyn, Mary Queen of Scots & Elizabeth I, Parts 1-3.
Calendar of State Papers, Scotland, page 613.
Buchanan, George. Rerum Scoticarum Historia. Edinburgh,
Hawkins, Sir John, A General History of the Science and
Practice of Music, Volume 2. J. Alfred Novello, 1853.
Ives, Eric. The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn. Blackwell
Page, Christopher. The Guitar in Tudor England: A Social and
Musical History. Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Starkey, David. Elizabeth: The Struggle for the Throne.
Harper Perennial, 2007.
Weir, Alison. The Life of Elizabeth I. Ballantine Books,
Oxford University, Bodleian Library and Radcliffe Camera.
Special thanks to this site for allowing glimpses into the astrological charts
compiled by the Elizabethan astrologers/physicians, John Dee and Simon Forman.
“500 Years Later” by
CR Chalmers and EJ Chaloner, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Royal
Society of Medicine Press.
“King Henry VIII’s Medical World” by Dr. Elizabeth T Hurren,
Senior Lecturer History of Medicine at Oxford Brookes University.
Mary, Queen of Scots, also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of
Scotland, was Queen of Scotland from December 1542 to July 1567 and Queen
Consort of France from July 1559 until December 1560.
Mary was the daughter of King James V of Scotland and Marie
of Guise, a member of the House of Guise, which played a significant role in
16th-century French politics. Mary was the only surviving legitimate child of
King James V and she acceded to the throne when her father died. She was six
days old. She spent the majority of her childhood in France while Scotland was
ruled by regents along, and in 1558 she married the Dauphin of France. He
became King Francis II in 1559, and Mary was briefly Queen Consort, until his
death in December 1560. The young widow returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith
on August 19, 1561. Four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry
Stuart, Lord Darnley, but their union was unhappy. In February 1567, his
residence was destroyed by an explosion and Darnley was found murdered in the
James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, was thought to be the
master-mind behind Darnley’s death, however he was acquitted of the charge in
April 1567. Twelve days later he married Mary. It has always been a question as
to whether the marriage was one of force or whether she agreed or not. Another
theory is that she was in complete agreement with the marriage.
Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was
imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle. On July 24, 1567, she was forced to abdicate
in favor of James, her one-year-old son by Darnley, her deceased husband. After
an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the
protection of her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I of England. Mary had previously
claimed Elizabeth’s throne as her own and was considered the legitimate
sovereign of England by many English Catholics. Unsure of what to do with the
capricious Mary, and with many of her counselors perceiving her as a threat,
Elizabeth had her confined in manor houses in the interior of England. After
eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate
Elizabeth, and was subsequently beheaded.
Mary remains a controversial figure in history. There are a few things we know for certain. She was tall, citations note her height at 5’ 10” to six feet, her grandmother was King Henry VIII’s sister Margaret, she was the mother of James I and VI of England and Scotland, and she was considered beautiful in her own time and by our contemporary standards. As an old adage states, someone that beautiful has to be guilty, and Mary Stuart is quite possibly the best example of that statement in history. He married her handsome English cousin Henry, Lord Darnley, a reckless match which she later regretted.
She loved music and was skilled at playing both the lute and
viola. Two of her favorite activities were music and dancing, which was shunned
by the strict Protestant Calvinist beliefs of John Knox, the head of the
Scottish Kirk (Church). The powerful Scottish Lairds (Nobles) were increasingly
becoming members of the Scottish Kirk and frowned upon her practices as well. A
truce of sorts was reached in which Mary and her court could enjoy their
Catholic Masses in private. The young Queen and her entourage, known as the
Four Maries, were allowed to enjoy their masquerades and merry making within
the confines of the castles at the Queen’s state events. Knox felt that the
young queen, and her love of dance and music had turned the royal enclaves into
brothels, rather than places for honest women.
The turning point for in Mary Stuart’s life came with the
death of David Rizzio. He was an Italian courtier and musician, who rose to
become the private secretary of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary’s husband, Lord
Darnley, is said to have been jealous of their friendship. Darnley joined in a
conspiracy of Protestant nobles, led by Patrick Ruthven, Lord Ruthven, to
murder him. This murder became the catalyst for the downfall of Darnley, and it
had serious consequences for Mary’s turbulent career.
Rizzio, whose name appears in records as David Riccio di
Pancalieri in Piemonte went from Turin, Italy to the Court of the Duke of
Savoy, at Nice, France. Finding no opportunities for advancement there, he was
employed by the Count de Moretto in 1561, who was leading a diplomatic mission
to Scotland. Once in Scotland, Rizzio, found that there were no further
opportunities for him and he was dismissed from service. He ingratiated himself
with the Queen’s French musicians. James Melville, a personal friend of Rizzio,
said that “Her Majesty had three valets in her chamber, who sung three parts,
and wanted a bass to sing the fourth part”. Rizzio was considered an excellent
singer, which brought him to the attention of the Queen.
Having grown wealthy under her patronage, he became the secretary for relations with France in 1564, after the previous secretary of the post retired. This post attracted a quarterly salary of £20. Ambitious-seeing himself as all but a Secretary of State, Catholic and a foreigner, Rizzio was much too close to the Queen. Rumors swirled that Mary was having an affair with the Italian Fiddler, as some called him and that her child was possibly his.
Jealousy on the part of the vain and arrogant Lord Darnley
led to his murder in the Queen’s presence, in her supper chamber in the Palace
of Holyroodhouse after the royal guards were overpowered and the palace was
turned over to the control of the rebels. Commanded by Patrick Ruthven, they
demanded Rizzio be handed over. The Queen refused. Rizzio then hid behind Mary
but was seized and stabbed to death in the presence of the Queen. He was
stabbed 56 times on March 9, 1566 by Lord Darnley and his co-conspirators. The
Queen was seven months pregnant at the time of the murder.
After this violent struggle, Rizzio’s body was thrown down
the main staircase, stripped of its jewels and fine clothes. He was buried
within two hours in the cemetery of Holyrood. Records state that his body was
removed by the Queen’s orders and deposited in the sepulchre of the Kings of
Mary’s turbulent life continued. Lord Darnley was dead with a year, and a few years later the beautiful Scottish Queen escaped into England in hopes of being rescued from her own nobles by her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I. This ended badly as well, with her execution in 1587 on charges of high treason against her cousin. And it all began because she wanted a fourth musician in her chamber. It should be noted that her son was born heathy and although he was taken from her at an early age, he eventually become King James VI and I, the first Stewart King of Great Britain.
Next stop in Medicine, Magic and Music: The Healing Properties of Music observed in the Lives of Anne Boleyn, Mary Queen of Scots & Elizabeth I is a look into how music and the arts flourished in the reign of Elizabeth I.
On turning over in my mind the contents of your last letters, I have put myself into great agony, not knowing how to interpret them, whether to my disadvantage, as you show in some places, or to my advantage, as I understand them in some others, beseeching you earnestly to let me know
expressly your whole mind as to the love between us two. It is absolutely necessary for me to obtain this answer, having been for above a whole year stricken with the dart of love, and not yet sure whether I shall fail of finding a place in your heart and affection, which last point has prevented me for some time past from calling you my mistress; because, if you only love me with an ordinary love, that name is not suitable for you, because it denotes a singular love, which is far from common. But if you please to do the office of a true loyal mistress and friend, and to give up yourself body and heart to me, who will be, and have been, your most loyal servant, (if your rigour does not forbid me) I promise you that not only the name shall be given you, but also that I will take you for my only mistress, casting off all others besides you out of my thoughts and affections, and serve you only. I beseech you to give an entire answer to this my rude letter, that I may know on what and how far I may depend. And if it does not please you to answer me in writing, appoint some place where I may have it by word of mouth, and I will go thither with all my heart. No more, for fear of tiring you. Written by the hand of him who would willingly remain yours,
Though it is not fitting for a gentleman to take his lady in the place of a servant, yet, complying with your desire, I willingly grant it you, if thereby you can find yourself less uncomfortable in the place chosen by yourself, than you have been in that which I gave you, thanking you cordially that you are pleased still to have some remembrance of me. 6. n. A. 1 de A. o. na. v. e. z.
Although, my Mistress, it has not pleased you to remember the promise you made me when I was last with you — that is, to hear good news from you, and to have an answer to my last letter; yet it seems to me that it belongs to a true servant (seeing that otherwise he can know nothing) to inquire the health of his mistress, and to acquit myself of the duty of a true servant, I send you this letter, beseeching you to apprise me of your welfare, which I pray to God may continue as long as I desire mine own. And to cause you yet oftener to remember me, I send you, by the bearer of this, a buck killed late last night by my own hand, hoping that when you eat of it you may think of the hunter; and thus, for want of room, I must end my letter, written by the hand of your servant, who very often wishes for you instead of your brother.
MY MISTRESS & FRIEND, my heart and I surrender ourselves into your hands, beseeching you to hold us commended to your favour, and that by absence your affection to us may not be lessened: for it were a great pity to increase our pain, of which absence produces enough and more than I could ever have thought could be felt, reminding us of a point in astronomy which is this: the longer the days are, the more distant is the sun, and nevertheless the hotter; so is it with our love, for by absence we are kept a distance from one another, and yet it retains its fervour, at least on my side; I hope the like on yours, assuring you that on my part the pain of absence is already too great for me; and when I think of the increase of that which I am forced to suffer, it would be almost intolerable, but for the firm hope I have of your unchangeable affection for me: and to remind you of this sometimes, and seeing that I cannot be personally present with you, I now send you the nearest thing I can to that, namely, my picture set in a bracelet, with the whole of the device, which you already know, wishing myself in their place, if it should please you. This is from the hand of your loyal servant and friend,
For a present so beautiful that nothing could be more so (considering the whole of it), I thank you most cordially, not only on account of the fine diamond and the ship in which the solitary damsel is tossed about, but chiefly for the fine interpretation and the too humble submission which your goodness hath used towards me in this case; for I think it would be very difficult for me to find an occasion to deserve it, if I were not assisted by your great humanity and favour, which I have
always sought to seek, and will seek to preserve by all the kindness in my power, in which my hope has placed its unchangeable intention, which says, Aut illic, aut nullibi.
The demonstrations of your affection are such, the beautiful mottoes of the letter so cordially expressed, that they oblige me for ever to honour, love, and serve you sincerely, beseeching you to continue in the same firm and constant purpose, assuring you that, on my part, I will surpass it rather than make it reciprocal, if loyalty of heart and a desire to please you can accomplish this.
I beg, also, if at any time before this I have in any way offended you, that you would give me the same absolution that you ask, assuring you, that henceforward my heart shall be dedicated to you alone. I wish my person was so too. God can do it, if He pleases, to whom I pray every day for that end, hoping that at length my prayers will be heard. I wish the time may be short, but I shall think it long till we see one another.
Written by the hand of that secretary, who in heart, body, and will, is, Your loyal and most assured Servant,
TO MY MISTRESS. Because the time seems very long since I heard concerning your health and you, the great affection I have for you has induced me to send you this bearer, to be better informed of your health and pleasure, and because, since my parting from you, I have been told that the opinion in which I left you is totally changed, and that you would not come to court either with your mother, if you could, or in any other manner; which report, if true, I cannot sufficiently marvel at, because I am sure that I have since never done any thing to offend you, and it seems a very poor return for the great love which I bear you to keep me at a distance both from the speech and the person of the woman that I esteem most in the world: and if you love me with as much affection as I hope you do, I am sure that the distance of our two persons would be a little irksome to you, though this does not belong so much to the mistress as to the servant.
Consider well, my mistress, that absence from you grieves me sorely, hoping that it is not your will that it should be so; but if I knew for certain that you voluntarily desired it, I could do no other than mourn my ill-fortune, and by degrees abate my great folly. And so, for lack of time, I make an end of this rude letter, beseeching you to give credence to this bearer in all that he will tell you from me.
Written by the hand of your entire Servant,
DARLING, these shall be only to advertise you that this bearer and his fellow be despatched with as many things to compass our matter, and to bring it to pass as our wits could imagine or devise; which brought to pass, as I trust, by their diligence, it shall be shortly, you and I shall have our desired end, which should be more to my heart’s ease, and more quietness to my mind, than any other thing in the world; as, with God’s grace, shortly I trust shall be proved, but not so soon as I would it were; yet I will ensure you that there shall be no time lost that may be won, and further can not be done; for ultra posse non est esse. Keep him not too long with you, but desire him, for your sake, to make the more speed; for the sooner we shall have word from him, the sooner shall our matter come to pass. And thus upon trust of your short repair to London, I make an end of my letter, my own sweet heart.
Written with the hand of him which desireth as much to be yours as you do to have him.
MY LORD, in my most humblest wise that my heart can think, I desire you to pardon me that I am so bold to trouble you with my simple and rude writing, esteeming it to proceed from her that is much desirous to know that your grace does well, as I perceive by this bearer that you do, the which I pray God long to continue, as I am most bound to pray; for I do know the great pains and troubles that you have taken for me both day and night is never likely to be recompensed on my part, but alonely in loving you, next unto the king’s grace, above all creatures living. And I do not doubt but
the daily proofs of my deeds shall manifestly declare and affirm my writing to be true, and I do trust you do think the same.
My lord, I do assure you, I do long to hear from you news of the legate; for I do hope, as they come from you, they shall be very good; and I am sure you desire it as much as I, and more, an it were possible; as I know it is not: and thus remaining in a steadfast hope, I make an end of my letter.
Written with the hand of her that is most bound to be
Your humble Servant,
The writer of this letter would not cease, till she had caused me likewise to set my hand, desiring you, though it be short, to take it in good part. I ensure you that there is neither of us but greatly desireth to see you, and are joyous to hear that you have escaped this plague so well, trusting the fury thereof to be passed, especially with them that keepeth good diet, as I trust you do. The not hearing of the legate’s arrival in France causeth us somewhat to muse; notwithstanding, we trust, by your diligence and vigilancy (with the assistance of Almighty God), shortly to be eased out of that trouble. No more to you at this time, but that I pray God send you as good health and prosperity as the writer would.
By your loving Sovereign and Friend,
There came to me suddenly in the night the most afflicting news that could have arrived. The first, to hear of the sickness of my mistress, whom I esteem more than all the world, and whose health I desire as I do my own, so that I would gladly bear half your illness to make you well. The second, from the fear that I have of being still longer harassed by my enemy, Absence, much longer, who has hitherto given me all possible uneasiness, and as far as I can judge is determined to spite me more because I pray God to rid me of this troublesome tormentor. The third, because the physician in whom I have most confidence, is absent at the very time when he might do me the greatest pleasure; for I should hope, by him and his means, to obtain one of my chief joys on earth — that is the care of my mistress — yet for want of him I send you my second, and hope that he will soon make you well. I shall then love him more than ever. I beseech you to be guided by his advice in your illness. In so doing I hope soon to see you again, which will be to me a greater comfort than all the precious jewels in the world.
Written by that secretary, who is, and for ever will be, your loyal and most assured Servant,
H. (A B) R.
The uneasiness my doubts about your health gave me, disturbed and alarmed me exceedingly, and I should not have had any quiet without hearing certain tidings. But now, since you have as yet felt nothing, I hope, and am assured that it will spare you, as I hope it is doing with us. For when we were at Walton, two ushers, two valets de chambres and your brother, master-treasurer, fell ill, but are now quite well; and since we have returned to our house at Hunsdon, we have been perfectly well, and have not, at present, one sick person, God be praised; and I think, if you would retire from Surrey, as we did, you would escape all danger. There is another thing that may comfort you, which is, that, in truth in this distemper few or no women have been taken ill, and what is more, no person of our court, and few elsewhere, have died of it. For which reason I beg you, my entirely beloved, not to frighten yourself nor be too uneasy at our absence; for wherever I am, I am yours, and yet we must sometimes submit to our misfortunes, for whoever will struggle against fate is generally but so much the farther from gaining his end: wherefore comfort yourself, and take courage and avoid the pestilence as much as you can, for I hope shortly to make you sing, la renvoyé. No more at present, from lack of time, but that I wish you in my arms, that I might a little dispel your unreasonable thoughts.
Written by the hand of him who is and alway will be yours,
Im- H. R. -mutable.
The cause of my writing at this time, good sweetheart, is only to understand of your good health and prosperity; whereof to know I would be as glad as in manner mine own, praying God that (an it be His pleasure) to send us shortly together, for I promise you I long for it. How be it, I trust it shall not be long to; and seeing my darling is absent, I can do no less than to send her some flesh, representing my name, which is hart flesh for Henry, prognosticating that hereafter, God willing, you may enjoy some of mine, which He pleased, I would were now.
As touching your sister’s matter, I have caused Walter Welze to write to my lord my mind therein, whereby I trust that Eve shall not have power to deceive Adam; for surely, whatsoever is said, it cannot so stand with his honour but that he must needs take her, his natural daughter, now in her extreme necessity.
No more to you at this time, mine own darling, but that with a wish I would we were together an evening.
With the hand of yours,
Since your last letters, mine own darling, Walter Welshe, Master Browne, Thos. Care, Grion of Brearton, and John Coke, the apothecary, be fallen of the sweat in this house, and, thanked be God, all well recovered, so that as yet the plague is not fully ceased here, but I trust shortly it shall. By the mercy of God, the rest of us yet be well, and I trust shall pass it, either not to have it, or, at the least, as easily as the rest have done.
As touching the matter of Wilton, my lord cardinal hath had the nuns before him, and examined them, Mr. Bell being present; which hath certified me that, for a truth, she had confessed herself (which we would have had abbess) to have had two children by two sundry priests; and, further, since hath been kept by a servant of the Lord Broke that was, and that not long ago. Wherefore I would not, for all the gold in the world, clog your conscience nor mine to make her ruler of a house which is of so ungodly demeanour; nor, I trust, you would not that neither for brother nor sister, I should so destain mine honour or conscience. And, as touching the prioress, or Dame Eleanor’s eldest sister, though there is not any evident case proved against them, and that the prioress is so old that for many years she could not be as she was named; yet notwithstanding, to do you pleasure, I have done that neither of them shall have it, but that some other good and well-disposed woman shall have it, whereby the house shall be the better reformed (whereof I ensure you it had much need), and God much the better served.
As touching your abode at Hever, do therein as best shall like you, for you best know what air doth best with you; but I would it were come thereto (if it pleased God), that neither of us need care for that, for I ensure you I think it long. Suche is fallen sick of the sweat, and therefore I send you this bearer, because I think you long to hear tidings from us, as we do likewise from you.
Written with the hand de votre seul,
The approach of the time for which I have so long waited rejoices me so much, that it seems almost to have come already. However, the entire accomplishment cannot be till the two persons meet, which meeting is more desired by me than anything in this world; for what joy can be greater upon earth than to have the company of her who is dearest to me, knowing likewise that she does the same on her part, the thought of which gives me the greatest pleasure.
Judge what an effect the presence of that person must have on me, whose absence has grieved my heart more than either words or writing can express, and which nothing can cure, but that begging you, my mistress, to tell your father from me, that I desire him to hasten the time appointed by two days, that he may be at court before the old term, or, at farthest, on the day prefixed; for otherwise I shall think he will not do the lover’s turn, as he said he would, nor answer my expectation.
No more at present for lack of time, hoping shortly that by word of mouth I shall tell you the rest of the sufferings endured by me from your absence.
Written by the hand of the secretary, who wishes himself at this moment privately with you, and who is, and always will be,
Your loyal and most assured Servant,
H. no other A B seek R.
DARLING, I heartily recommend me to you, ascertaining you that I am not a little perplexed with such things as your brother shall on my part declare unto you, to whom I pray you give full credence, for it were too long to write. In my last letters I writ to you that I trusted shortly to see you, which is better known at London than with any that is about me, whereof I not a little marvel; but lack of discreet handling must needs be the cause thereof. No more to you at this time, but that I trust shortly our meetings shall not depend upon other men’s light handlings, but upon our own.
Written with the hand of him that longeth to be yours.
MINE own SWEETHEART, this shall be to advertise you of the great elengeness that I find here since your departing; for, I ensure you methinketh the time longer since your departing now last, than I was wont to do a whole fortnight. I think your kindness and my fervency of love causeth it; for, otherwise, I would not have thought it possible that for so little a while it should have grieved me. But now that I am coming towards you, methinketh my pains be half removed; and also I am right well comforted in so much that my book maketh substantially for my matter; in looking whereof I have spent above four hours this day, which causeth me now to write the shorter letter to you at this time, because of some pain in my head; wishing myself (especially an evening) in my sweetheart’s arms, whose pretty dukkys I trust shortly to kiss.
Written by the hand of him that was, is, and shall be yours by his own will,
DARLING, Though I have scant leisure, yet, remembering my promise, I thought it convenient to certify you briefly in what case our affairs stand. As touching a lodging for you, we have got one by my lord cardinal’s means, the like whereof could not have been found hereabouts for all causes, as this bearer shall more show you. As touching our other affairs, I assure you there can be no more done, nor more diligence used, nor all manner of dangers better both foreseen and provided for, so that I trust it shall be hereafter to both our comforts, the specialities whereof were both too long to be written, and hardly by messenger to be declared. Wherefore, till you repair hither, I keep something in store, trusting it shall not be long to; for I have caused my lord, your father, to make his provisions with speed; and thus for lack of time, darling, I make an end of my letter, written with the hand of him which I would were yours.
The reasonable request of your last letter, with the pleasure also that I take to know them true, causeth me to send you these news. The legate which we most desire arrived at Paris on Sunday or Monday last past, so that I trust by the next Monday to hear of his arrival at Calais: and then I trust within a while after to enjoy that which I have so long longed for, to God’s pleasure and our both comforts.
No more to you at this present, mine own darling, for lack of time, but that I would you were in mine arms, or I in yours, for I think it long since I kissed you.
Written after the killing of a hart, at eleven of the clock, minding, with God’s grace, to-morrow, mightily timely, to kill another, by the hand which, I trust, shortly shall be yours.
To inform you what joy it is to me to understand of your conformableness with reason, and of the suppressing of your inutile and vain thoughts with the bridle of reason. I assure you all the good in this world could not counterpoise for my satisfaction the knowledge and certainty thereof, wherefore, good sweetheart, continue the same, not only in this, but in all your doings hereafter; for thereby shall come, both to you and me, the greatest quietness that may be in this world.
The cause why the bearer stays so long, is the business I have had to dress up gear for you; and which I trust, ere long to cause you occupy: then I trust to occupy yours, which shall be recompense enough to me for all my pains and labour.
The unfeigned sickness of this well-willing legate doth somewhat retard his access to your person; but I trust verily, when God shall send him health, he will with diligence recompense his demur. For I know well where he hath said (touching the saying and bruit that he is thought imperial) that it shall be well known in this matter that he is not imperial; and thus, for lack of time, sweetheart, farewell.
Written with the hand which fain would be yours, and so is the heart.
Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. Written July, 1527. “Aut illic, aut nullibi.” Either there, ornowhere.
The signature means “H. seeks no other (heart). R.”
Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. This letter was written in July, 1527.
Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. Written February, 1528. “Ultra posse non est esse.” One can’t do more than the possible.
Anne Boleyn to Cardinal Wolsey. MS. Cott. Vitellius, B. xii. f. 4. Written June 11, 1528. Printed by Ellis as from Katherine of Arragon. There is another letter from Anne to Wolsey, thanking him for a present. It is very similar to this, and is found in MS. Cott. Otho. c. x. f. 218 (printed in Burnet, i, 104, and in Ellis, Original Letters, vol. i).
Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. Written June 16, 1528.
Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. This letter was written June 20. “It.” The sweating sickness. This is the 1528 epidemic.
“Your brother.” George Boleyn, afterwards Viscount Rochford, executed 1536 on a charge of incest.
Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. Written about June 22, 1528. “Welze” is the same person as “Welshe” on p. xxx.
Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. Written July 6 (?), 1528. “Suche” is probably Zouch.
Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. Written July 20, 1528.
Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. Written July 21, 1528.
Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. Written August, 1528. “Elengeness.” Loneliness, misery.
“My book.” On the unlawfulness of his marriage with Katherine.
Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. Written August 20, 1528.
Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. Written September 16, 1528. Campeggio actually arrived at Calais on Monday, September 14.
Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. Written at the end of October, 1528.
Originally published via Medium.com – All Things Tudor
Kathryn Holeman is back with her 2020 edition of the Ultimate Tudor Christmas Package! Maybe it’s the year or her product line but this gift box is so full that she could barely fit all of the items into one photo. This limited edition package includes $175 worth of Tudor treasures for only $100 USD. It’s gift wrapped with care using Kathryn’s illustrated Tudor pattern paper and ships for free within the United States. She also offers low international flat rate shipping.
The 2020 Ultimate Tudor Christmas Package includes:
• 1 limited edition Anne Boleyn or Elizabeth I ornament.
• 1 Tudor mug (choose from 3)
• 1 copy of Colouring History: Tudor Queens and Consorts with a set of 12 color pencils
• 1 Tudor 285-piece puzzle
• 2 Tudor Queen bookmarks
• 2 Tudor notepads with illustrations based on a book of hours once owned by Anne Boleyn
• 1 Tudors coaster set (6 in a set)
• 2 notecards: Winter at Hampton Court and Autumn at Hever Castle
• A beautifully gift-wrapped box including all items. Gift wrap will be as shown with Tudor wrap and red ribbon. The two notecards will be packed in the same box but separate from the wrapped gift package.
Value of $175 for $100 with USPS Priority 3-day shipping included. International flat rate of $15 shipping.
Plan ahead! This package is prepared by hand for each order. See the estimated shipping times below.
Int’l orders: Please allow 3-4 weeks for arrival. The last day to order this package for guaranteed December 24th arrival is Wednesday, November 25thth. Contact Kathryn directly through Etsy if you would like to upgrade to Priority International Mail if you end up ordering after this date.
King Henry V’s only son and eldest daughter grab fewer headlines than King Henry VIII or Queen Elizabeth I, but their actions helped shape the religious and political history of England and Europe. Edward VI was a zealous reformer dedicated to establishing strong Protestant doctrine in England. His first Book of Common Prayer promoted uniform worship throughout the country, and his second prayer book provided a model used in the Church of England for 400 years. His dedication to religious reform lasted until the end of his life when he tried to upend the law to prevent a Catholic from taking the throne.
But his Catholic half-sister Mary acted quickly and gathered supporters, staging the only successful revolt against central government in the 16th century. As the first crowned regnant Queen of England, she overcame centuries of preference for male rule. Her Parliament passed the Act for Regal Power, enshrining the power of queens and creating precedence for all the Queens to follow. She exerted every effort to undo Edward’s reform and return England to Catholicism. Join Royal Oak and historian and educator Carol Ann Lloyd to explore the lives of the often overlooked Tudor monarchs.
Thank you to our co-sponsor: The Union League Legacy Foundation
Thank you to our cultural co-sponsors: The Oxford & Cambridge Society of New England; The American Scottish Foundation
Carol Ann Lloyd
Carol Ann Lloyd is a popular speaker who shares the stories of Shakespeare and English history. She is the former Manager of Visitor Education at Folger Shakespeare Library, where she gave workshops and tours about Shakespeare and Early Modern England. Carol Ann has presented programs at the Smithsonian, Folger Shakespeare Library, Agecroft Hall, and TEDx, among other venues. Ms. Lloyd is a member of the National Speakers Association
Attractive, wealthy and influential, Katherine Willoughby is one of the most unusual ladies of the Tudor court. A favourite of King Henry VIII, Katherine knows all his six wives, his daughters Mary and Elizabeth, and his son Edward, as well as being related by marriage to Lady Jane Grey.
When her father dies, Katherine becomes the ward of Tudor knight, Sir Charles Brandon. Her Spanish mother, Maria de Salinas, is Queen Catherine of Aragon’s lady in waiting, so it is a challenging time for them all when King Henry marries the enigmatic Anne Boleyn.
Following Anne’s dramatic downfall, Katherine marries Charles Brandon, and becomes Duchess of Suffolk at the age of fourteen. After the tragic death of Jane Seymour, and the short reign of young Catherine Howard. Katherine and Brandon are chosen to welcome Anna of Cleves as she arrives in England.
When the royal marriage is annulled, Katherine’s good friend, Catherine Parr becomes the king’s sixth wife, and they work to promote religious reform. Katherine’s young sons are tutored with the future king, Prince Edward, but when Edward dies his Catholic sister Mary is crowned queen. Katherine’s Protestant faith puts her family in great danger – from which there seems no escape.
Katherine’s remarkable true story continues the epic tale of the rise of the Tudors, which began with the best-selling Tudor trilogy and concludes with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I.
Tony Riches is a full-time UK author of best-selling historical fiction. He lives in Pembrokeshire, West Wales and is a specialist in the history of the Tudors. For more information about Tony’s books please visit his website tonyriches.com and his blog, The Writing Desk and find him on Facebook and Twitter @tonyriches
The 15th century in England saw a series of battles among British noble families and royal relatives that ripped apart the fabric of English politics. As Henry VI was weak leader, two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet seized the opportunity for a bold and bloody familial power grab and, in doing so, reshaped the English monarchy. These tumultuous decades saw a rotating cast of kings, families divided, cousin against cousin, and fortunes made and lost.
Join Royal Oak as historian and educator Carol Ann Lloyd focuses on the key players in this tempestuous saga, including Henry VI, his wife Marguerite of Anjou, the father and son Duke of York team, the Kingmaker, Richard III, Margaret Beaufort and her relatives, and the first Tudor king. She also will explain how and why this time of civil war came to be known as the “Wars of the Roses.”
This just in from Natalie Grueninger and On The Tudor Trail…
Over two exciting months, Natalie Grueninger will host weekly discussions on her podcast, Talking Tudors, with a number of leading experts & Boleyn historians. The rich array of topics will cover everything from Boleyn supporters at Henry VIII’s court to Thomas Cromwell’s role in Anne Boleyn’s downfall. Listeners will gain a fresh perspective on one of the most prominent and misunderstood families of the Tudor era, and come face to face with the people behind the famous family name.
In addition to the weekly episodes, there will also be giveaways and guest posts by some amazing historians/novelists: Tracy Borman, Adrienne Dillard, Wendy J. Dunn, Andy Demsky and Tamsin Lewis. As well as the podcasts and guest articles, illustrator Kathryn Holeman will present two fun Tudor drawing tutorials. But wait, there’s more… The brilliant Professor Suzannah Lipscomb, will answer your questions about Anne Boleyn!
During a blustery 18 days in June 1520, an historic event took place in the Pale of Calais. Here King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France met in an ostentatious display of power, wealth and status. Masterminded by Thomas Wolsey, the aim was to join the two kingdoms in a pact of solidarity and friendship, notably against the insurgence of the Ottoman Empire, which was threatening Christian Europe at the time.
It was a spectacular event that became famous in its own lifetime. Now 500 years on, over the weekend of the 9-10 May 2020, The Tudor Travel Guide is celebrating this historic event by holding a FREE two-day virtual summit. You will hear from experts in their fields talking about a range of different aspects of the event: from the social, political and cultural context, to original research to locate Henry’s celebrated temporary palace, clothing & textiles, food and more…
Speaker line up:
Saturday 9 May:
Many of the speakers have offered to give away a copy of one of their books as part of a book bundle giveaway to one lucky winner, who will be selected at random at the end of the event. The winner will be notified by email and The Tudor Travel Guide will post the winner’s name on FB and Twitter. Books included in the bundle are:
The Field of Cloth of Gold, by Glenn Richardson
In the Footsteps of the Six Wives of Henry VIII, by Sarah Morris and Natalie Grueninger.
Henry VIII and the Men who made Him, by Tracy Borman
A Banquet at the Old Hall: An Invitation to participate in Historic Cooking, by Brigitte Webster
Tudor London, by Natalie Grueninger
The Great Wardrobe Accounts of Henry VII and Henry VIII, by Maria Heyward (tbc)
A colour paper by Julian Munby of his original research on finding he location of the temporary palace at the Field of Cloth of Gold will also be included.
Yale University Press have also kindly offered to make free sample chapters available from a range of their Tudor related books (details still to be finalised) for EVERY registrant to the summit.
How to sign up:
This online summit is FREE attend. You simply need to register you name and email address. Don’t worry if you can’t make the dates and times advertised or are in a different time zone. All the videos will remain available to view until the 24 June 2020 to coincide with the final day of the actual event, 500 years ago. However only those registering for the event will have access to the videos.
How to register:
Sign up will open on Thursday 9 April 2020 and will remain open until 48 hours before the event, i.e. Midnight on Wednesday 7 May 2020.
Follow this link to the sign-up page & join today! REGISTER
All images either Public Domain or shared courtesy of Dr Sarah Morris